Introduction and Objectives
The aim of this study was to identify frequency of clinical symptoms in kidney cancer cases.
Material and Methods
All patients who had undergone surgical treatment because of renal carcinoma (RCa) since Jan 1998 to Dec 2007 were included into this retrospective single institution study. Data on tumor size and histology were collected from pathological reports. There was collected most common clinical symptoms of kidney cancer: general complaints, hematuria, pain, asthenia and weight loss. All cases were divided into groups according tumor histology, size, patient's age and gender. Exclusion criteria for size and hystology calculation were benign tumor and known metastasis at the time of surgery. Statistical analysis was performed using descriptive statistic, Chi-Square parameter.
999 cases were included to this study. The median patient's age was 64±11.57 (range 18–91) years. 54.1% males and 45.9% females were operated. There was performed 78.8% nephrectomies, and 21.2% kidney resections. 14.7% of all surgical procedures was made laparoscopic. Patients has reported following symptoms: general complaints (59%), hematuria (17%), pain (44.8%), asthenia (8.9%), weight loss (3%). There was identified frequency rate of clinical signs for metastatic cancer 71.3% and cancer without known metastasis (57.5%) (p = 0.006). The frequency of hematuria was detected for metastatic cancer 27.8%, in cases without known metastasies 15.7% (p = 0.002). Frequency of hematuria for malignant tumors was 97.9%, and for benign 2.1% (p = 0.004). Frequency of clinical signs by histological groups were following: transitional cells ca. – 95%, clear cells ca. – 55.8%, papillar ca. – 67.3%, chromofobic ca. – 61.5%, other (non classified) ca. – 58% (p = 0.003). Frequency of hematuria is most identified in transitional cells ca. group 72.7%. (p = 0,0005). Frequency of clinical signs by tumor size were following: ≤4 cm. – 45.7%, 4–7 cm. – 62.9%, 7–10 cm. – 66.2%, ≥10.1 cm. – 76.3%. (p = 0.0005). There was no significant difference of clinical signs frequency by gender and age.
Clinical signs frequency is higher for metastatic cancer, than cancer without known metastasis. Frequency rate of hematuria is higher for malignant tumors, than for benign. Transitional cells carcinoma is most symptomatic histological group. Tumor size has significant influence for frequency rate of clinical symptoms.
© 2009 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.